The Smile as a Promoting Instrument of Comfort in Hospitalized Patients: A Literature Review
COLAÇO, Carla Alexandra Amorim; PONTÍFICE-SOUSA, Patrícia Cruz; MARQUES, Rita

Background and objectives: In their daily practice, nurses use communication strategies that allow them to provide humanized nursing care, especially the smile, as a way of establishing an empathic relationship and promoting comfort. Thus, with this integrative literature review, we intended to analyze how smile can be a promoting instrument of comfort in hospitalized patients. Data sources: The studies included in this review resulted from an indexed search in the following databases CINAHL®, Nursing & Allied Health, Cochrane, Medic Latina, MEDLINE® and SciELO, as well as in libraries at Universities and Nursing Schools. Review Methods: The study was developed as an integrative literature review in which six studies were selected and duly analyzed. Results: Of the six selected studies, two were conducted in Portugal (Lisbon), three in Brazil (São Paulo, João Pessoa and Rio de Janeiro) and one in Australia; they include the results of a doctoral thesis, a systematic literature review, and four qualitative analysis works. All studies, except the systematic literature review, resulted from observation or interviews with nurses. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that smile is an instrument of non-verbal communication used by nurses as a strategy to promote comfort. It contributes to the establishment of an empathic relationship and to the provision of humanized nursing care.

Full Text: PDF     DOI: 10.15640/ijn.v3n2a7